In fact the transportation of slaves became such a regular affair that the journey from Africa to the West Indies became known as the ‘Middle Passage’. With the English came a period of sprawling and prosperous sugarcane plantations and piracy. Under British rule, Jamaica went from being a Spanish storehouse to one of the most prized Colonial possession of the entire British Empire. The sugar industry grew quickly in Jamaica -- in 1672 there were 70 plantations producing 772 tonnes of sugar per annum -- growing in the 1770s to over 680 plantations. The immediate post slavery days were very difficult for the poorer classes. To add fuel to the already burning flame, the American Civil War resulted in supplies being cut off from the island. He started out as a pirate and later became a privateer. The frequent slave rebellions in the Caribbean was one factor that led to the abolition of the slave trade and slavery. On arrival at St Ann’s Bay, Columbus found the Arawak Indians inhabiting the island. Eyre was subsequently recalled to England but not before exchanging the ancient Constitution for the Crown Colony system. However, the slave trade with Jamaica had commenced before this date. In 1674 Lord Vaughan arrived as Governor. The slave trade became a popular and profitable venture for the colonists. All Rights Reserved. The sugar industry grew so rapidly that the 57 sugar estates in the island in 1673 grew to nearly 430 by 1739. After the English finally captured Jamaica from the Spanish in 1660, the area around the north coast town of Puerta Santa Maria became known as St. Mary and the chief town as Port Maria. How Do I protect Myself From Cybercrimes? Tobacco, indigo and cocoa soon gave way to sugar which became the main crop for the island. Fifteen years later in 1509, after their first visit to the island, the first Spanish colonists came here under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel. Having failed to capture the bigger island, and fearing Cromwell’s wrath, the men turned their fleet toward the relatively unprotected Jamaica. In 1739 and 1740 after two major Maroon Wars, treaties were signed with the British. Between 1660 and 1670 pirates used Jamaica as a place of resort. The Indigenous People of Jamaica It is believed that the Tainos were the first group of people to make the island of Jamaica their home. Carrying an elaborate feudal commission that made him perpetual governor of all lands discovered and gave him a percentage of all trade conducted, Columbus set sail in September 1492, determined to find a faster, shorter way to China and Japan. Ms. More noble sea battles were also fought in Jamaican waters. As he was determined to annex the island in the name of the king and queen of Spain, he was not deterred. Frequent attacks by pirates also contributed to the colony’s woes. In 1663 an expedition sailed from Jamaica to attack the Spanish town of Campeche, in Central America. Admirals Horatio Nelson and George Rodney fought many of their most famous battles while based on the island. In 1958, Jamaica and ten (10) other Caribbean countries formed the Federation of the West Indies. A violent earthquake destroyed Port Royal on June 7, 1692. In 1670 Spain formally ceded the island to Britain . By 1700 Jamaica was awash with sugar plantations and Jamaica's population was comprised of 7,000 English to 40,000 slaves. They formed an anti slavery committee which was joined by supporters such as Granville Sharp, James Ramsay, Thomas Clarkson and later on, William Wilberforce. This treaty resulted in a rift among the Maroons as they did not all agree that they should return run-away slaves to the plantations. The following year Jamaica joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Under the buccaneers’ leadership the town, within a decade and a half, grew to become known as one of the “wealthiest and wickedest city in the world”. There are mountains and plateaus to the interior and east of the island. Port Royal’s days as a pirate’s haven, however, were numbered, and in 1697 a massive earthquake plummeted much of the city into Kingston Harbour. The will of the masses was not deemed important and hence ignored. The English captured Jamaica in 1655 and turned the island into one vast sugar plantation, making the planters rich. The first town was called New Seville or Sevilla la Nueva. The Spaniards, when they came, tortured and killed the Arawaks to get their land. Pirates. These were the Bustamante industrial Trade Union (BITU) named after the founder, Sir Alexander Bustamante. Fewer than 50 immigrants surv i ved. The process was aided by the introduction of European diseases to which the Arawaks had little or no resistance. Towns were little more than settlements. On May 5, 1494 Christopher Columbus, the European explorer, who sailed west to get to the East Indies and came upon the region now called the West Indies, landed in Jamaica. The contributing factors were discontent at the slow pace of political advance. It lies 630 kilometres north-east of mainland Central America. The little attention the colony received from Spain soon led to a major reason for internal strife. Trading in African slaves was declared to be “utterly abolished, prohibited and declared to be unlawful”. More than 430 people were executed or shot, hundreds more flogged and 1,000 dwellings destroyed. – Howard Pyle, “Jamaica New and Old” in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, January 1890. It is surrounded by coastal plains, with sandy beaches and many natural bays. European settlements in the Caribbean began with Christopher Columbus. Morgan was knighted by king Charles II of England and was appointed Lieutenant governor of Jamaica in 1673. Tobacco was grown on a large scale as smoking was their most popular pastime. Jamaica - Jamaica - The independent country: On August 6, 1962, Jamaica became independent with full dominion status within the Commonwealth, under a constitution that retained the British monarch as head of state. In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain's colonies in the Caribbean. Other countries have taken centuries to grow from their primitive life through the flower and fruit of prosperity into the seed time of picturesque decrepitude. On May 10, 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. Education, health, and social services were greatly improved. The greatest buccaneer captain of all was Henry Morgan. Jamaica is a large island in the Caribbean Sea. The early period of English settlement in Jamaica, drew much attention to the buccaneers based at Port Royal. They first settled in the St. Ann’s Bay area. The Jamaican Constitution 1962 is the most fundamental legal document in the country, guaranteeing the freedom, rights and privileges of every Jamaican citizen. Physically, they were light brown in colour, short and well-shaped with coarse, black hair. Throughout the course of history, people from all over the globe have settled in our island. He kept the Spaniards busy defending their coasts that they had little time to attack Jamaica. These people came to be known as Maroons (from the Spanish cimarron, meaning ‘wild’, a word applied to escaped slaves). Under British rule, Jamaica went from being a Spanish storehouse to one of the most prized Colonial possession of the entire British Empire. A distinction exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois, though not entirely a sharp distinction so much as a gradual continuum between two extremes. Port Royal prior to this time was an insignificant town in Jamaica. Both Sir Alexander Bustamante and Norman Manley were instrumental in Jamaica’s move towards self-government. The voyage was so named because the journey of a British slaver was 3-sided, starting from England with trade goods, to Africa where these were exchanged for slaves.  In 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables were dispatched to conquer Spanish Santo Domingo (Hispaniola). Portland Eastern By-Election 2019: 6 Things From The Data. Fifteen years later in 1509, after their first visit to the island, the first Spanish colonists came here under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel. The first general elections under Universal Adult Suffrage was held in December 1944. The prehistory of Jamaica saw three separate waves of colonization by Amerindian peoples. The Spanish also came without women and as of such, often the Taino women were raped by the settlers. With the English came a new language, a new political system, a new economic base, new recreational, musical and artistic pursuits, as well as new culinary influences and four other cultural groups ­ the Irish, Scots, Welsh and Africans. On January 1, 1808 the Abolition Bill was passed. Fish was also a major part of their diet. These individuals ended up in Jamaica for a variety of reasons. Several slave rebellions stand out in Jamaica’s history for example, the Easter Rebellion of 1760 led by Tacky; and the Christmas Rebellion of 1831 which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James, led by Sam Sharpe. He was also the founder and leader of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), the political party affiliated with the BITU. Paul Bogle and George William Gordon, now National Heroes, were hanged. The English settlers concerned themselves with growing crops that could easily be sold in England. Unable to find gold and other precious metals on Jamaica, the Spanish saw little use for the island and hardly resisted the invasion of British soldiers in 1655. In 1655, the British ended a failed attempt to steal Santo Domingo from Spain by stealing the one island they didn’t care about enough to protect.I’m sure even fellow Jamaicans are wondering where I’m going with this, but after hanging around way too many Spaniards – and dating two – I’ve noticed a few things.Ricardo, Daniel, Emilio, Leo, Adrian, and Ian are all common Jamaican names. Columbus also needed wood and water and a chance to repair his vessels. Morgan died in 1688. A proper island-wide savings back system was organised. Out of these disturbances came the formation of the first labour unions and the formation of the two major political parties. From 1509 to 1655, what we know as Jamaica was called Santiago, a colony of Spain. Are You Prepared In Case There Is An Earthquake? They were a wild, rough and ruthless set of sea rovers. The original inhabitants of Jamaica are believed to be the Arawaks, also called Tainos. 1248.   On the backs of a large population of African slaves, the colony became one of the most important sugar producers in the world. Jamaica, W.I, Tel: 1 (876) 926-3740-6, Feature | Presented by: Anjuii James Sawyers, Copyright 2020 The Jamaica Information Service. The Arawaks led quiet and peaceful lives until they were destroyed by the Spaniards some years after Christopher Columbus discovered the island in 1494. In Jamaica, the Maroons occupied a mountainous region known as the "Cockpit," creating crude fortresses and a culture derived from African and European traditions. As the 70th anniversary of the ship’s arrival nears, relations between the UK and its former colony are fraying, with the extent of the scandal’s human damage proving difficult to measure They took their loot of gold, silver and jewels to Port Royal. Other factors included the work of humanitarians who were concerned about the slaves’ well-being. Robert Jackson Chin (Chin Pa-kung), opened a wholesale house on downtown Kingston’s Pechon Street (Desnoes and Geddes b uilding in there now). Initially, Columbus thought these Indians were hostile, as they attacked his men when they tried to land on the island. What Are The Damages That A Hurricane Can Cause? They came from South America 2,500 years ago and named the island Xaymaca, which meant ““land of wood and water”. Caribbean Islands Table of Contents. The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped … In the treaty of 1740, they were given land and rights as free men. Their attitudes changed however, when they were attacked by a dog from one of the Spanish ships and Columbus’ cross-bow men. How Did White Horses In St. Thomas Get Its Name? In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain's fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. Jamaica served mainly as a supply base: food, men, arms and horse were shipped here to help in conquering the American mainland. Similarly, the glossy, red, pear-shaped ackee, poisonous if eaten unripe, and today the national food of Jamaica, came from West Africa, brought either by European slaver or African slave. Buccaneering had begun on the islands of Tortuga and Hispaniola. Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica and is the official language of the country. The concept of Caribbean unity was soon abandoned in 1961 when Jamaicans voted against the Federation of the West Indies. Having failed to capture the bigger island, and fearing Cromwell’s wrath, the men turned their fleet toward the relatively unprotected Jamaica. The Maroons also had several wars against the English. In 1673 there were 17,272 persons in Jamaica. Henry Morgan, Calico Jack Rackham, and his wife Anne Bonny were a few of the names that made Port Royal into the richest city of vice in the new world. Columbus was soon to find out that there was no gold in Jamaica. From 1838 to 1917, over 30,000 Indians immigrated to Jamaica, followed by about 5,000 Asians from 1860 to 1893 who came as indentured laborers. Facebook Twitter. In England, they used to say “as rich as a West Indian planter” to … English on Barbados developed out of transported varieties from the British Isles and later came under the influence of varieties which were created by Africans who were kept on the island as slaves. The Life of Africans Who Came to Jamaica as “Slaves” November 23, 2015 August 1, 2017 Guest Author . 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